Saturday, March 14, 2020

African American Theater

African American Theater Introduction Dramatic performances have been prevalent in many parts of the world for a long period of time. These artistic performances entail several aspects that reflect on a community’s point of view regarding certain societal elements. African American theater is a typical example of dramatic art presentations that serve to highlight on a society’s weaknesses and strengths (Rubin, 2000).Advertising We will write a custom research paper sample on African American Theater specifically for you for only $16.05 $11/page Learn More African American theater basically stemmed from American theater which is believed to be relatively new. The black population in America has basically strived to ensure that their dramatic performances get the required attention. It is believed that black American performers ventured into the field as early as 1820, but their work never attained sufficient recognition (Hay, 2004). Black artists generally performed, cr eated, and staged shows for audiences that were not entirely black. It is evident that black theater is currently facing challenges although it is regarded as a remarkably transformed field. Challenges faced by African American Theater These challenges occur through the various constraints faced by companies that seemingly work hard to promote this form of art. Most companies that aim to promote black performances rarely survive for a long time, thus, they close down for various reasons. For instance, it is hard to find such companies employing black participants in all the stages of production. In simpler terms, the directors, producers, and performers are usually a mixed lot in terms of their racial affiliation. Nevertheless, there is every reason to state that African American theater has really improved as evidenced by intensified comparisons between the past and the present (Hay, 2004). The African Groove Theater stands out as one the first companies to appreciate African Ameri can theater. Through William Brown and Hewlett James, who were also founders of the company, African Groove Theater offered black performers a chance to showcase their talents. Drama of King Shot Away was showcased to a mixed audience in 1823, but white people were not amused (Hay, 2004). They basically opposed the idea of an African American theater and even executed several attacks that eventually led to its closure. The Sambo is a typical manifestation of racial issues during these periods and black people disliked such depictions. During this period, white actors could perform stereotypical black roles by wearing black faces. White audiences generally attended these performances as a way of mocking the Africans (Rubin, 2000).Advertising Looking for research paper on art and design? Let's see if we can help you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More Black actors during this period also performed African American roles in the performances, but they a dhered to the prevalent white ideas about these particular roles. For instance, black actors could wear black faces in their performances and they also subliminally embraced racial depictions that were commonly performed by white artists. The evolution of black theater Black theater is constantly evolving as evidenced by the journey travelled through the years. Black theater made a bigger impact in the 1930’s, especially during the Harlem Renaissance (Hay, 2004). Grandison Lewis stands out as the first black actor and playwright to feature on Broadway. Others included Loraine Hansberry and S. Ntozake who appeared later on. They overcame many challenges that were meant to sabotage the progression of African American Theater. These artists tried as hard as they could and their message was eventually heard. The artists currently command enough respect among the black population for their efforts. It is evident that despite the challenges, African American arts have become reli able channels of entertainment in America. Black people in America have basically subdued several forms of subjugation in the community and this can be attributed to the African American Theater. They include human rights issues, political matters, and residential complications. Black films played a great role in changing the attitudes of the entire community towards black people (Rubin, 2000). Apart from being denied an opportunity to share drinks from the same source with white people, African Americans could not easily feature on television. However, the persistence exemplified by black actors ensured that they started featuring on television without restrictions from the society. The stage, therefore, became a major platform through which black people expressed their sorrow, oppression, and other vices that were perpetrated by white people. Acting became the fundamental way of enduring the pain that was inflicted on black people by the White population. Advertising We w ill write a custom research paper sample on African American Theater specifically for you for only $16.05 $11/page Learn More Black Theater today Today, African American Theater is a core component of American theater. Black Theater basically holds that the issues which are shared emanate from human stories and nothing else. This implies that the cultural affiliation and background that an individual has, does not matter because human conditions like love and struggle are usually at play. In other words these are universal themes that affect each and every individual. However, these institutions require lots of support in order to maintain and boost their importance in the society. Some theater institutions have opted to ensure that black theater lives forever. This is done through supporting and educating the artists. The Ensemble Theater, based in Houston, is an example of institutions that currently promote African American Theater. Urban theater has also emerge d on the scene and it constitutes a multi-billion dollar industry (Elam, 2000). Its appearance has been a thorn in the flesh for black theater and its survival. Urban theater flourishes because unlike black theater, it has all the funding and it consists of fewer stereotypes. Black theater has come a long way, but many challenges are still evident. References Elam, J. (2000). African American Performance and Theater History: A Critical Reader. Oxford: Oxford University Press Hay, S. (2004). African American Theatre:An Historical and Critical Analysis. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press Rubin, D. (2000). The World Encyclopedia of Contemporary Theatre: The Americas. New York City: Routledge.Advertising Looking for research paper on art and design? Let's see if we can help you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More

Wednesday, February 26, 2020

Evidence Burden Essay Example | Topics and Well Written Essays - 2500 words

Evidence Burden - Essay Example A defendant charged with murder could claim diminished responsibility or insanity1 permitting prosecution to adduce other defence and the same applies to unfitness to plead and stand trial. Woolmington ruling places the burden of proving on defendant2 and at times, had been questionable. Effect of Human Rights Act, 1998 on English Law had been extensive and the Courts3 have taken enormous trouble to read down legislations in order to avoid incompatibility with Convention Human Rights. Accused is innocent as long as he is proven otherwise4 and this enables the criminal statutes to transfer the burden of proof to the accused 'without violating the presumption of innocence'5. In the context of drug trafficking, Lord Hutton disagreed with other Law Lords stating that the social threat posed by drugs was sufficient justification for imposing persuasive burden6. Nowhere compatibility question was more relevant than in Sheldrake v DPP A-G's reference No 4 of 2002, where House of Lords unanimously held that Section 5(2) should not be read down. As per Terrorism Act, 2002, regarding the issue of being a member of terrorist organisations, House of Lords opined that 'Section 11(2) of the Act should be read and given effect as imposing on the defendant an evidential burden only7'. The Magistrates Courts Act, 1980 states that it is necessary to decide if the defendant is relying on exception, exemption, proviso, excuse or qualification, and if so, the burden of proof immediately will fall on him8. Environmental Protection Act, 1990 and its open connection with the Human Rights has become another area of legal difficulties and conflict between EU laws and UK laws9. Section 161 (1) of Highways Act 1980 provides the legal burden on the prosecution to prove that a person 'has left something suspicious or dangerous on the highway' and it has been slightly controversial10 where reverse onus of proof is concerned. Misdirection in a criminal trial on burden of proof can lead to a quashing of a conviction on an appeal11. In civil trials the party who asserts an issue also carries the burden of proving it. In a tort action for negligence the claimant does so and in a contract action, discharge of agreement or frustration, falls on the defendant12. If a particular issue is dependent on a substantive law, like lack of precedent, 'prove a positive' of 'prove a negative' might gain significance13. Privy Council had stated that burden of proof in mitigation of damage should be with defendant. Again the Common Law defences like self-defence, duress, provocation and non-insanity automatism come into picture. Instances of prosecution bearing the legal burden 'beyond reasonable doubt' and the degree of probability could wipe out the gingerly admitted evidence. The main question comes as whether the jury is satisfied that the guilt could be inadequate and usually the judge advises the jury beforehand14 and here Canadian justice differs from English law. Choo's argument that sometimes the proof of burden could be difficult to be proved depending on the circumstances and the rigid rule should be more flexible based on situations. I agree with all the above arguments of Andrew Choo. QUESTION 2: Evidence and proof in criminal proceedings and to a lesser extent, in civil proceedings are the

Monday, February 10, 2020

Is famine a natural phenomenon Essay Example | Topics and Well Written Essays - 1500 words

Is famine a natural phenomenon - Essay Example tion as to whether or not famine is man-made or a natural disaster, the following aims to explore the different causes of famine in a holistic perspective. It is reported that in Asia Africa and Latin America, the regions of the world which are underdeveloped, more than 500 million people live in absolute poverty. Accordingly more than 9 million people die each and every year due to hunger and malnutrition and starvation. Accordingly famine persists despite the fact that we have obtained a certain level of and development in the Western developed world and the result of income disparity is the increased incidence of famine throughout the world. What are the causes of famine? For many parts of the world famine is caused by a series of social, political, and environmental factors which have led to widespread poverty and hunger. In some places such as in Ethiopia, Somalia, and other countries of the Horn of Africa harsh envrionmental conditions and political instability have paved the way for famines and droughts. Droughts occur due to environmental factors and can be caused by a lack of rain one year, soil degradation, or the forces of g lobal warming. Environmental catastrophes have been prevalent throughout world history and famine can be traced back to biblical stories as well as to the early annals of modern civilization. In this respect then, famine can be seen as inevitable and as a feature of our existence on earth. Despite the fact that famine has existed since the dawn of time, there are also human made factors which can account for the rise of famines and poverty throughout the world. We now turn to the causes of human made famines and turned to exploration of our case study, Somalia. The African continent, although seen by many as the cradle of humanity and endowed with many natural resources, is home to some of the poorest countries on the planet. Many of these countries are beset by famine, arguably the greatest indicator of poverty known to

Thursday, January 30, 2020

Trust is the key ingredient in leadership Essay Example for Free

Trust is the key ingredient in leadership Essay This weeks Assignment consists of viewing a scenario about Sandwich Blitz, Inc. , reading an article about integrity in leadership, and writing a two-page double-spaced paper. Integrity in leadership is absolutely essential. † In today’s world more companies are looking for people with integrity to head their organizations. † It is because of the lack of integrity that financial turmoil is happening in the world today. If you have integrity you will go somewhere in life. â€Å"Grenville Kleiser said, â€Å"You are already consequence in the world if you are known as a man of strict integrity. † Without integrity no real success is possible. â€Å"Trust is the key ingredient in leadership. If you cannot engender trust, you are unlikely to find many who are interested in following your lead. They assume that you are making the right choice based on ethics and proper morals. † Sometimes integrity may be considered an old fashioned word in businesses environment. Integrity is defined among other things as â€Å" being true to one’s values. † When a leader has a set of clearly defined values that determine the actions and decisions they take. Strong leaders must be consistent. Integrity breeds consistency by providing a clear set of principles to follow. With the proper amount of integrity a leader will follow through and do what is right. When integrity is maintained, positive results don’t need to be questioned or worried over. If you want to see successful leadership in your life you need to have integrity. â€Å"Integrity is what we, do, what we say, and what we say we do†- Don Gater. â€Å"Don Gater sums it up well in a short statement. As a man of integrity, your word is your bond. Integrity is an important part of leadership. Leadership is often clear as day when witnessed firsthand, without integrity a leader may find that no one is willing to follow him.

Wednesday, January 22, 2020

The Theme of Saints in Robertson Davies Fifth Business Essay -- Saint

The marvelous story of saints is one of the leading themes in Fifth Business. As the author Robertson Davies develops this theme through Dunstan’s journey into hagiology, he often uses certain saints such as Saint Dunstan, as allusions. Among the Saints that the novel refers to, Saint Paul is the perfect allusion that portrays the character of Paul Dempster since the two share strong similarities in their lives. Additionally, Saint Paul foreshadows Dunstan’s encounter with Paul Dempster. Saint Paul’s life is similar to Paul Dempster’s life in many ways. Both of them develop their hatred from an early age. Saint Paul was a Jewish student who hated Christians whom he believed to be infidels. As he grows in status, he assists in persecuting them. Similarly, Dempster has an abhorrence for his mother and her inanity which made him the laughingstock in his town. He penalizes his mother for causing him to endure such ignominy by running away. Furthermore, their display of hatred also leads them to attain and sustain a second life. Saint Paul and Paul Dempster are both reborn in their life...

Tuesday, January 14, 2020

Genetic Testing and Counseling in Pregnancy Essay

For many women, pregnancy is met with excitement. However, for a few couples, the pregnancy can take a completely different turn when the fetus is determined to be afflicted with Tay-Sachs disease. This is a genetic condition, usually found in Caucasians, and primarily those of Jewish descent, and develops in 25% of cases when both parents carry the recessive gene (National Tay-Sachs and Allied Diseases [NTSAD], n. d. ). Genetic counseling is a relatively new concept in healthcare and â€Å"is the process of helping people understand and adapt to the medical, psychological and familial implications of genetic contributions to disease† (National Society of Genetic Counselors [NSGC], 2005, para. 2). For the men and women facing a pregnancy involving Tay-Sachs, genetic counseling is a viable and important option to consider. However, to ensure quality care and education, genetic counseling needs to involve a team of healthcare professionals from a variety of backgrounds. Interdisciplinary Team Members and Their Roles in Genetic Counseling Appropriate members of a multi-disciplinary team for the Trosacks include a genetic counselor, a nutritionist or dietician, the high-risk OB-GYN physician, a registered nurse specializing in high-risk perinatal care, and a therapist specializing in marriage and family therapy needs. Each member of this team will add a unique perspective to the Trosack’s case. The genetic counselor has graduate-level education and experience in both medical genetics and counseling (NSGC, 2005, para. 1). Using her expertise and skills, she will review the medical history for Mr. nd Mrs. Trosack, and their families, identify other genetic risks that may exist and explain inheritance patterns. She will provide information and resources for further education on genetic disorders, so that they can continue to learn about Tay-Sachs and connect with other families facing the disease. In addition to this expert information, the Trosacks will benefit from a nutritionist or dietician. The nutritionist not only has special training in the area of nutrition, but also in educating patients about their options and making nutritious choices. In general, a nutritionist can â€Å"advise individuals†¦on the nutritional practices that will promote good health, [and] structure and recommend diet plans for whole families†¦including guides to the correct preparation of meals and shopping for the right foods (Princeton Review, n. d. ). He will perform a nutrition assessment, provide education on additional nutritional needs due to pregnancy, and even assist with meal planning to ensure a health pregnancy. He will continue to assess and make recommendations on Mrs. Trosack’s nutritional needs based on lab work throughout the pregnancy. The patient’s overall care is the responsibility of her OB-GYN, who specializes in high-risk pregnancies. A high-risk OB-GYN has a lengthy education, residency and fellowship history to gain knowledge in caring for older patients, patients with specific medical conditions and patients carrying a pregnancy that has been determined to need specialized care. The perinatologist is not only capable of making diagnoses other obstetricians may miss, but can also perform specialized procedures and administer medications across the placenta (â€Å"Perinatologists,† n. d. ). She will assess the medical needs of Mrs.  Trosack and the fetus throughout the pregnancy, monitor fetal growth and development, order diagnostic tests as needed, and provide referrals to other specialists as needed. Working with the physician will be a nurse specializing in prenatal clients. This nurse has chosen to expand on her nursing education, taking additional classes and obtaining certifications specific to perinatal care. He will assess the couple’s understanding of pregnancy and prenatal care at the first visit and make a plan to educate them on each stage of pregnancy and fetal development as well as options available during labor and delivery. Additionally, he will ensure the couple understanding for each test or referral suggested by the physician. Due to the nature of the diagnosis, the couple will also benefit from a marriage and family therapist on their team. The couple has already expressed exasperation over the diagnosis, and volley between denial and acceptance of the diagnosis. Additionally, Mrs. Trosack has already expressed guilt over her workload and its â€Å"affect† on the baby. Mr. Trosack has expressed anger, which can lead to resentment. The strong emotions felt by both parties need to be expressed in a healthy way to preserve their marriage, and a therapist specializing in family matters is an appropriate facilitator. She will meet with the couple together, as well as individually to assess their feelings about the pregnancy, the Tay-Sachs diagnosis and the feelings they have toward each other. The therapy sessions will continue after the birth of their baby, due to the nature of the disease and the stress the baby’s health will add to their lives. Teaching Plan for the Initial Visit  The teaching plan for the Trosacks’ initial visit at the high-risk pregnancy center will include the following:  ·Genetic diagnosis—The Trosacks need to understand the diagnosis of Tay-Sachs: how it is transmitted, the probability of other pregnancies testing positive, and what symptoms their child is likely to develop. This will help them to understand they have done nothing wrong and prepare for the special needs their child will have.  ·Treatment—No treatment exists for the disease itself, but the Trosacks will benefit from learning about the symptoms their child may develop and how those symptoms are treated. They will be informed of ways to keep their child safe and comfortable during the illness.  ·Prognosis as it applies to Tay-Sachs—The prognosis for infantile Tay-Sachs is poor, with most children becoming progressively worse until their death by age 4 or 5. The Trosacks need to be informed of this so that they can make preparations—for themselves and other family members. Because most children develop normally until around six months of age, the Trosacks need to know that an absence of symptoms does not mean an absence of the disease (NTSAD, n. d. ). They need to know that their time with this child will be limited and filled with doctor visits and difficult medical decisions. With this education and advanced notice, they can begin to discuss which treatments they may consider (medications) and those treatments they may not want to consider (feeding tube).  ·Support groups and appropriate referrals—With the Internet, the community of support for families with Tay-Sachs has greatly expanded. The Trosacks will be given information on local support groups as well as the internet communities available to them. They will be directed to the National Tay-Sachs and Allied Disease, March of Dimes and National Organization for Rare Disorders websites to connect with other families who are living with Tay-Sachs. This support will help the Trosacks connect with the only other people who know what they are going through, share their concerns without fear of judgment, and learn from those have gone through it all personally.  ·Pregnancy information—Information on pregnancy is necessary for any pregnant woman, especially during her first pregnancy. Over the length of the pregnancy, the Trosacks will learn about how pregnancy and fetal development progresses during each trimester, what changes Mrs. Trosack can expect—physically and emotionally, and ways in which Mr. Trosack can be of assistance to her. The first visit will specifically cover the development to date and through the end of the first trimester. They will view pictures of the developing fetus and the ways in which Mrs. Trosack’s body is changing to accommodate the pregnancy. Ethical Implications of Having Genetic Information Available While genetic testing is a wonderful addition to the vast array of diagnostics medicine now offers, it can bring about new ethical implications. In reference to autonomy, genetic testing can sometimes reveal information about one’s family that was not known. For example, a Caucasian family may be surprised to find they are carriers for Sickle Cell disease, a disease found primarily in African-Americans and can bring about questions regarding the family history. These discussions may lead to the ethical issue of perceived invasions of privacy for other family members. Another example would be the dilemmas that occur when there is a difference in societal believes and one’s personal beliefs. First, â€Å"persons with a genetic condition may prefer not to learn that their offspring is at risk for the condition, or they may prefer to have offspring with the same condition present in other family members† (Halsey Lea, Williams, & Donahue, 2005, para. 15). Secondly, some people may feel it is unjust to bring a baby with anomalies into the world. The results of genetic testing in these instances may necessitate decisions about continuing pregnancy, selective termination and adoption. A third example of ethical dilemmas in regards to genetic information being available is in relation to beneficence and nonmalificence. For example, clinicians caring for a pregnant patient find the baby she is carrying has spina bifida. The patient states her sister had spina bifida and that she wants to deliver her baby in the community hospital with a midwife. The clinician now must balance her respect for her patient’s wishes with the concern she feels in allowing a baby with special needs to be born in an environment that cannot provide services that may improve the birth’s outcome (Halsey Lea et al. 2005). A fourth ethical issue is that of justice. For, some genetic disorders can be found with testing while others still cannot. For example, â€Å"the ability to identify carrier status for a mutation in the gene for cystic fibrosis is lower among Asian American and African American persons† than it is in Caucasians (Halsey Lea et al. , 2005). Thus, the results of testing performed on an Asian American or African American patient may not be a reliable indicator of their carrier status. Personal Thoughts, Feelings and Advocacy As a woman, this writer cannot begin to imagine the feelings felt by the Trosacks. After years of trying to conceive, they learn that they are finally pregnant only to find out their baby is likely to die by age five from a horrible, progressive disease. If in Mrs. Trosack’s shoes, would this writer be brave enough to continue the pregnancy, knowing the prognosis? I do not know. I am sure, however, that the Trosacks have a difficult road ahead of them. If I were Mrs. Trosack, I would expect to feel a constant state of grief—over the diagnosis and the life my child will not have, the loss of those milestones parents look forward to (first day of school, first dance, etc), the impending months or years of illness. I would hope that I could treasure the better moments I do have with my child—from birth to death, holding her as much as possible, trying to focus on the symptom-free moments, taking as many pictures as I can to record her short life. I question how angry a woman would feel in this situation. Surely, even those women with strong religious beliefs question the â€Å"why† of the diagnosis and circumstance. â€Å"Why, after all this time allow me to conceive if you’re going to give me a child so sick? What is the point of bringing a child into life if they are to suffer throughout? Why us? † Would a woman facing this diagnosis feel as if everyone pities her? While reading the case study, I found myself feeling pity for her, knowing that she would lose her child in such a horrible way after wanting a child so badly. Despite these feelings, the Trosacks’ choice to continue their pregnancy is just that†¦their choice. Many people think that being pro-choice means advocating for abortion. However, it is my belief that being pro-choice means advocating for people to make the best choice for themselves in particular situations. For, only those going through a particular situation know best how well or poorly they can handle a decision and circumstance. Their decision to continue a pregnancy after the diagnosis was made is a brave one and speaks volumes to their character and beliefs. The Trosacks’ case manager will work with each member of the interdisciplinary team to ensure they respect the wishes of the couple. The couple needs to know that they are supported and are being treated without judgment from the team members. She will meet with the team members to ensure they are able to continue treating with couple appropriately. If any of the team members express an inability to refrain from sharing their personal feelings with the couple, she will find suitable replacements. While the team members are entitled to their feelings, they are expected to keep those feelings to themselves when caring for patients. And, when patients are facing emotional and controversial decisions, the separation is even more important. Ethical and Legal Considerations When the Trosacks made the decision to continue the pregnancy after learning their baby has Tay-Sachs, they became bound, legally and ethically, to care for the child after the birth. Ethical considerations include the decision to bring a child into a life of poor health and early death after a progressive decline. Many people in society will judge them for this, and the child will be perceived in certain ways by others. Further, they will be faced with the decision to allow researchers to follow their child in an effort to gain more information about the disease in search for a cure. The child has no autonomy as a minor, and has no right to privacy when her parents are making the decisions. Another ethical question is who owns the genetic information? The genetic information is on the child’s DNA, but the parents are the ones making all the decisions. Legally, there are several areas of concern for the couple. First, they are now bound to provide healthcare to this child, despite the poor prognosis. They must provide food, clothing and shelter, and keep the child safe and comfortable as she declines. The child will eventually develop problems with swallowing, and at that time, will require further interventions to maintain life. Secondly, they are required to provide medical care for the child; and, with the poor prognosis, this is likely to involve many appointments, testing and medications or treatments. Third, they may have problems with insurance coverage, as some insurance policies may consider the child’s diagnosis to be pre-existing, denying coverage for any treatments associated with the disease. Though this is certainly not ethical, it is legal in this country, and may lead to financial problems and difficulty in continuing to obtain quality medical care.

Monday, January 6, 2020

Why University Xyz Should Go Global Essay - 2024 Words

Introduction Purpose and Scope – Introductory description that explains the basic purpose of the proposal, justification for why University XYZ should go global, Introduction Purpose and Scope XYZ University is at a crossroads. For the first time in our long history we are facing a financial crisis that threatens our very survival as an educational institution. A composite of key management indicators taken together presents a picture of an organization in decline. The purpose of this proposal is to outline a response to a 3-part directive commissioned by the President to expand vital elements in our educational mix to â€Å"go global† as a solution for the challenges we face. It is anticipated that the results of these initiatives will add value to our overall educational mission, generate long term growth, . and expand XYZ’s presence on an international basis. This proposal is divided into three segments. 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